According to “The State of Product Development & Hardware Design 2019,” an independent industry survey of 850 product design and manufacturing professionals, more than 8 out of 10 respondents acknowledge that they have a version control problem. There is confusion over which version of a design is really the latest version, a scenario that leads to costly manufacturing errors.
Using a Product Data Management (PDM) system has been a popular and successful way to prevent these kinds of mistakes, but how does one even begin to explore this approach?
Implementing a PDM strategy is not only time-consuming for project managers, but for every other stakeholder who needs to find the necessary resources to see the project through. As everyone is overloaded with other ongoing projects, understanding how a specific PDM solution impacts your business and your processes is more important than checking off a laundry list of PDM capabilities.
One of the biggest and most costly mistakes made while implementing a PDM system is trying to map current business processes to an off-the-shelf data management solution. This approach will likely lead to disappointment or a hefty consultant’s bill for a long drawn-out implementation with custom forms and macros.
Just because a specific process has always been used, doesn’t mean that it should continue to be used with a new tool. Many data management tools have workflows that will address most of the design processes you currently employ, and some will do things differently. It’s best to regard this as an opportunity to brush off the cobwebs and re-engineer your business processes if a particular workflow makes more sense.
Here are some of the minimum requirements you should look for in any Product Data Management system:
1. Installation, Setup and Maintenance
For companies with dedicated IT resources and CAD administrators, installation and maintenance of a PDM system is not a major issue beyond downtime and extra related costs. For smaller companies, however, it is often the CAD expert who also becomes the unofficial CAD administrator.
The PDM software itself does not take too long to install. But in most cases, the provisioning of multiple dedicated servers and installation and configuration of the SQL database (which usually comes as an extra cost) takes a certain level of patience and expertise. When the next annual release happens, it is pertinent to create multiple instances or sandbox environments that mirror your production setup. That way you can test that everything works as it should in a controlled environment before deploying new software to production. This will require extra hardware, time and IT resources, but it's a necessary and worthwhile exercise.
If you are working across multiple sites, you need to assess what capabilities are available for data replication – making exact copies of file servers – so that each site has a local copy of the data. Replication can usually be scheduled to run overnight or on-the-fly, but consider the network bandwidth required to move large datasets and the costs of running and maintaining extra servers.
Ongoing user and project management often falls to the CAD administrator, too. When occasional users such as sales, marketing, manufacturing, and guest users (such as contractors and customers) need access to your data, explore how flexible your software and vendor are for additional licensing and remote access options. Ask what processes need to be followed in order to give people access to the data they need as quickly as possible.
When evaluating a PDM system, discuss the options available for installation and maintenance to see how much work is involved. If it is not possible to configure the PDM system yourself, your vendor will be happy to supply a consultant for an additional cost as part of your implementation package.
It is important for any organization adopting a PDM system to evaluate their security requirements and try to predict who will need access to their data and what type of access will be required.
A minimum security requirement is that each user should have their own unique username and password and must login to the PDM system before they can access any company data (even the temporary files on their hard drive that were part of a previous session). This is in addition to any computer accounts and passwords. For users requiring remote access, a data management system should have additional security features like 2-Factor Authentication (2FA) available as standard.
Once authenticated, each user should not be able to access all data – only the projects, folders or individual files they have been given permission to view or edit. More granular user and group management would enable access to be controlled by role (or job function), team, project, folder and individual item. These security permissions should be able to be controlled by the system administrator or by the project manager.
A data management system should have additional security features such as 2-Factor Authentication (2FA) available as standard.
It is your IT department’s responsibility to ensure that no security measures can be circumvented. Your overall security plan should include password-protecting servers and shared network drives, administering firewalls, locking down USB ports to prevent file copying and physically securing server rooms.
When employees leave or move onto other projects, find out how easy it is to remove their access to your data and if it’s possible to collect or delete any files (on their hard drives or other storage media) that may be left over from previous PDM sessions and file check-outs. The PDM system should have an easy-to-use interface for administration of user accounts, as well as audit trails that show who accessed what and when. It should be easy for an administrator to reassign document ownership and access control on the fly.
3. Engineering Document Control
If you are considering a data management system from a different vendor than your CAD system, test their capability to handle all the different types of files you typically create as part of a project. The check-in and check-out procedure can vary between different systems and the efficiency of this process is highly dependent on how the backend servers are setup and the local client software or CAD add-ins are configured. Moving large datasets across a network during a check in/out process can take time, especially between different sites, so this should also be considered.
Other, non-CAD files are also critical to the development and documentation of a project. These can be PDF files, images, videos, or any other file-based item including Microsoft Office documents, spreadsheets and email correspondence. A PDM system should be able to handle these items as part of the product release process and keep a detailed, documented audit trail of every item from concept through to manufacture. Standard parts, fasteners and other approved supplier parts should be managed from a central repository to make them easy to find and easy to share between multiple projects, design teams or locations to prevent duplication.
PDM’s ability to index large amounts of data, including metadata, make it ideal for finding the right part or document quickly. Unless the search tools are granular enough, you may end up with long lists of similar parts or duplicates. Check what options are available, and how specific you can be with your search criteria. Can you search based on any metadata and can you combine multiple criteria? Can you search files that have been checked-out or new files that have not been checked in yet? Other search types that are common to PDM systems are reverse links (also known as “where used” reports) that display all of the drawings linked to an assembly that meet specified criteria or all of the assemblies where a revision of a specific part is consumed.
5. Version Control
As products go through each stage of a design process, certain milestones or recognized development stages are versioned in order to document progress or to inform others that a product is ready for review. A designer working on a project may make many modifications and design iterations in the course of determining the most efficient and cost-effective design. Once the designer is happy with the current state, checking-in the design should automatically create a version.
A version draws a line in the sand and stores the design at that moment-in-time in the database. This provides a permanent record of a version of the design that can be retrieved, reviewed and used as the baseline for further design edits or new product lines. For example, a product containing a complex linkage or mechanism may have been developed through any number of conceptual design ideas. Each idea is then considered based on its individual merits and the design that gets the consensus of approval will become the basis of the product moving forward. In order to document each of the ideas and to ensure that everyone is looking at the version that was put forward by the designer, version control is very important.
Make sure that a version stored in the PDM database can be easily searched, retrieved and is immutable, or in other words, cannot be changed or deleted by the user or the CAD administrator. Removing or altering an existing version could have a severe impact if it is used in other projects. Between each version, or check-out/check-in, a designer may make multiple changes to a design or create new parts. How easy is it to track those changes?
6. Revision Control and Approval Workflows
Revisions are used to denote designs that have been reviewed and approved through a formal release procedure and may be candidates for production – depending upon the state at which that revision is in. Revision control relies upon preconfigured approval workflows and revision schemes in order to route documents to the right people for sign-off and to apply the correct revision number.
When evaluating this important part of any data management solution, assess whether it can replicate your revision schemes and approval workflows. In many cases, an exact match may not be possible and your processes may need to be adjusted to suit. Redesigning and optimizing your engineering business processes is often key to a successful deployment of any PDM system – especially those processes that existed before PDM or before CAD.
To enable this redesign and optimization, most PDM systems provide workflow design tools. With workflows, almost any business process can be modeled visually and automated to follow strict rules and various paths of approval depending on different criteria. A set of documents can be routed through different people, groups and departments (either in parallel or in serial) in order to receive all the signatures required for release.
Exceptions, such as the rejection of a document change, should be dealt with through custom paths or even sub-workflow processes. Automation is key to workflows – for example, the ability to automate the definition of an attribute (such as release state) as the workflow reaches a specific stage.
Most PDM systems will provide a visual, easy-to-use interface that enables an administrator to design the required workflows. An API (Application Programing Interface) should be available to enable some level of customization above and beyond the out-of-the-box functionality provided by the workflow designer.
To initiate a workflow, a user should submit an object for approval. If the object is an assembly, the system should be able to up-issue any subassembly or part that requires it. It should also be able to revision control individual part or assembly configurations (variations of a standard item) and add items from other documents or projects as part of the approval process.
Notifications of pending approvals should be sent to managers via email with embedded links to find approval submissions easily. Before signing-off a design, a manager must be able to easily interrogate the design in detail without having to go looking for data.
Access to this information on a mobile device should also be considered for managers and executives on the go. A project manager or CAD administrator should be able to see which documents are pending approval, how long they have been in that state, and who the approvers are. This is vital to keep projects on track and to prevent any bottlenecks caused by approvers being absent from the business.
7. Automatic Part Numbering
Part numbers should be unique across the company for inventory and other purposes. If the PDM system has the option of generating automatic part numbers, it should be customizable out-of-the-box to suit most companies’ needs and be able to check that numbers don’t already exist to prevent duplication in the database.
If your Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system generates the master part codes, there must be a mechanism (through an API or other method) to extract that data and apply it to any new parts at check-in.
Your Guide to Data Management and PDM
Exhausted yet? We’ve only gone over half of the critical factors when exploring a PDM solution and will continue the list in another blog next week. Don’t want to wait that long? Onshape’s latest eBook,“The Engineering Leader’s Guide to Data Management & PDM,” will help you evaluate your current processes and help you compare and contrast alternative solutions. Download your free copy here.